Enviando correo electrónico a través de gmail y python

¿Cuál es la forma recomendada de enviar correos electrónicos con gmail y python?

Hay muchos subprocesos SO, pero la mayoría son antiguos y smtp con nombre de usuario y contraseña ya no funciona o el usuario debe degradar la seguridad de su gmail (por ejemplo, consulte aquí ).

¿Es OAuth la forma recomendada?

La respuesta muestra cómo enviar correos electrónicos con la API de gmail y python. También se actualizó la respuesta para enviar correos electrónicos con archivo adjunto.

Gmail API & OAuth -> no es necesario guardar el nombre de usuario y la contraseña en el script.

La primera vez que el script abre un navegador para autorizar el script y almacenará las credenciales localmente (no almacenará el nombre de usuario ni la contraseña). Las ejecuciones sucesivas no necesitarán el navegador y pueden enviar correos electrónicos directamente.

Con este método , no obtendrá errores como SMTPException a continuación y no es necesario permitir el acceso para aplicaciones menos seguras:

raise SMTPException("SMTP AUTH extension not supported by server.") smtplib.SMTPException: SMTP AUTH extension not supported by server. 

Aquí están los pasos para enviar un correo electrónico utilizando la API de gmail:

Activar los pasos de la API de Gmail (Enlace del asistente aquí , más información aquí )

Paso 2: instalar la biblioteca de cliente de Google

 pip install --upgrade google-api-python-client 

Paso 3: use el siguiente script para enviar correo electrónico (solo cambie las variables en la función principal)

 import httplib2 import os import oauth2client from oauth2client import client, tools import base64 from email.mime.multipart import MIMEMultipart from email.mime.text import MIMEText from apiclient import errors, discovery import mimetypes from email.mime.image import MIMEImage from email.mime.audio import MIMEAudio from email.mime.base import MIMEBase SCOPES = 'https://www.googleapis.com/auth/gmail.send' CLIENT_SECRET_FILE = 'client_secret.json' APPLICATION_NAME = 'Gmail API Python Send Email' def get_credentials(): home_dir = os.path.expanduser('~') credential_dir = os.path.join(home_dir, '.credentials') if not os.path.exists(credential_dir): os.makedirs(credential_dir) credential_path = os.path.join(credential_dir, 'gmail-python-email-send.json') store = oauth2client.file.Storage(credential_path) credentials = store.get() if not credentials or credentials.invalid: flow = client.flow_from_clientsecrets(CLIENT_SECRET_FILE, SCOPES) flow.user_agent = APPLICATION_NAME credentials = tools.run_flow(flow, store) print('Storing credentials to ' + credential_path) return credentials def SendMessage(sender, to, subject, msgHtml, msgPlain, attachmentFile=None): credentials = get_credentials() http = credentials.authorize(httplib2.Http()) service = discovery.build('gmail', 'v1', http=http) if attachmentFile: message1 = createMessageWithAttachment(sender, to, subject, msgHtml, msgPlain, attachmentFile) else: message1 = CreateMessageHtml(sender, to, subject, msgHtml, msgPlain) result = SendMessageInternal(service, "me", message1) return result def SendMessageInternal(service, user_id, message): try: message = (service.users().messages().send(userId=user_id, body=message).execute()) print('Message Id: %s' % message['id']) return message except errors.HttpError as error: print('An error occurred: %s' % error) return "Error" return "OK" def CreateMessageHtml(sender, to, subject, msgHtml, msgPlain): msg = MIMEMultipart('alternative') msg['Subject'] = subject msg['From'] = sender msg['To'] = to msg.attach(MIMEText(msgPlain, 'plain')) msg.attach(MIMEText(msgHtml, 'html')) return {'raw': base64.urlsafe_b64encode(msg.as_string())} def createMessageWithAttachment( sender, to, subject, msgHtml, msgPlain, attachmentFile): """Create a message for an email. Args: sender: Email address of the sender. to: Email address of the receiver. subject: The subject of the email message. msgHtml: Html message to be sent msgPlain: Alternative plain text message for older email clients attachmentFile: The path to the file to be attached. Returns: An object containing a base64url encoded email object. """ message = MIMEMultipart('mixed') message['to'] = to message['from'] = sender message['subject'] = subject messageA = MIMEMultipart('alternative') messageR = MIMEMultipart('related') messageR.attach(MIMEText(msgHtml, 'html')) messageA.attach(MIMEText(msgPlain, 'plain')) messageA.attach(messageR) message.attach(messageA) print("create_message_with_attachment: file: %s" % attachmentFile) content_type, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(attachmentFile) if content_type is None or encoding is not None: content_type = 'application/octet-stream' main_type, sub_type = content_type.split('/', 1) if main_type == 'text': fp = open(attachmentFile, 'rb') msg = MIMEText(fp.read(), _subtype=sub_type) fp.close() elif main_type == 'image': fp = open(attachmentFile, 'rb') msg = MIMEImage(fp.read(), _subtype=sub_type) fp.close() elif main_type == 'audio': fp = open(attachmentFile, 'rb') msg = MIMEAudio(fp.read(), _subtype=sub_type) fp.close() else: fp = open(attachmentFile, 'rb') msg = MIMEBase(main_type, sub_type) msg.set_payload(fp.read()) fp.close() filename = os.path.basename(attachmentFile) msg.add_header('Content-Disposition', 'attachment', filename=filename) message.attach(msg) return {'raw': base64.urlsafe_b64encode(message.as_string())} def main(): to = "to@address.com" sender = "from@address.com" subject = "subject" msgHtml = "Hi
Html Email" msgPlain = "Hi\nPlain Email" SendMessage(sender, to, subject, msgHtml, msgPlain) # Send message with attachment: SendMessage(sender, to, subject, msgHtml, msgPlain, '/path/to/file.pdf') if __name__ == '__main__': main()

Sugerencia para ejecutar este código en Linux, sin navegador:
Si su entorno de Linux no tiene un navegador para completar el proceso de autorización por primera vez, puede ejecutar el código una vez en su computadora portátil (mac o windows) y luego copiar las credenciales en la máquina de Linux de destino. Las credenciales se almacenan normalmente en el siguiente destino:

 ~/.credentials/gmail-python-email-send.json 

Modifiqué esto de la siguiente manera para trabajar con Python3, inspirado en la API de Python Gmail ‘no JSON serializable’

 import httplib2 import os import oauth2client from oauth2client import client, tools import base64 from email.mime.multipart import MIMEMultipart from email.mime.text import MIMEText from apiclient import errors, discovery SCOPES = 'https://www.googleapis.com/auth/gmail.send' CLIENT_SECRET_FILE = 'client_secret.json' APPLICATION_NAME = 'Gmail API Python Send Email' def get_credentials(): home_dir = os.path.expanduser('~') credential_dir = os.path.join(home_dir, '.credentials') if not os.path.exists(credential_dir): os.makedirs(credential_dir) credential_path = os.path.join(credential_dir, 'gmail-python-email-send.json') store = oauth2client.file.Storage(credential_path) credentials = store.get() if not credentials or credentials.invalid: flow = client.flow_from_clientsecrets(CLIENT_SECRET_FILE, SCOPES) flow.user_agent = APPLICATION_NAME credentials = tools.run_flow(flow, store) print('Storing credentials to ' + credential_path) return credentials def SendMessage(sender, to, subject, msgHtml, msgPlain): credentials = get_credentials() http = credentials.authorize(httplib2.Http()) service = discovery.build('gmail', 'v1', http=http) message1 = CreateMessage(sender, to, subject, msgHtml, msgPlain) SendMessageInternal(service, "me", message1) def SendMessageInternal(service, user_id, message): try: message = (service.users().messages().send(userId=user_id, body=message).execute()) print('Message Id: %s' % message['id']) return message except errors.HttpError as error: print('An error occurred: %s' % error) def CreateMessage(sender, to, subject, msgHtml, msgPlain): msg = MIMEMultipart('alternative') msg['Subject'] = subject msg['From'] = sender msg['To'] = to msg.attach(MIMEText(msgPlain, 'plain')) msg.attach(MIMEText(msgHtml, 'html')) raw = base64.urlsafe_b64encode(msg.as_bytes()) raw = raw.decode() body = {'raw': raw} return body def main(): to = "to@address.com" sender = "from@address.com" subject = "subject" msgHtml = "Hi
Html Email" msgPlain = "Hi\nPlain Email" SendMessage(sender, to, subject, msgHtml, msgPlain) if __name__ == '__main__': main()

Aquí está el código de Python 3.6 (y las explicaciones) necesarios para enviar un correo electrónico sin (o con) un archivo adjunto.

(Para enviar con el archivo adjunto simplemente descomente las 2 líneas debajo de ## without attachment y comente las 2 líneas debajo de ## with attachment )

Todo el crédito (y up-vote) a apadana.

 import httplib2 import os import oauth2client from oauth2client import client, tools import base64 from email import encoders #needed for attachment import smtplib import mimetypes from email import encoders from email.message import Message from email.mime.audio import MIMEAudio from email.mime.base import MIMEBase from email.mime.image import MIMEImage from email.mime.multipart import MIMEMultipart from email.mime.text import MIMEText from email.mime.application import MIMEApplication #List of all mimetype per extension: http://help.dottoro.com/lapuadlp.php or http://mime.ritey.com/ from apiclient import errors, discovery #needed for gmail service ## About credentials # There are 2 types of "credentials": # the one created and downloaded from https://console.developers.google.com/apis/ (let's call it the client_id) # the one that will be created from the downloaded client_id (let's call it credentials, it will be store in C:\Users\user\.credentials) #Getting the CLIENT_ID # 1) enable the api you need on https://console.developers.google.com/apis/ # 2) download the .json file (this is the CLIENT_ID) # 3) save the CLIENT_ID in same folder as your script.py # 4) update the CLIENT_SECRET_FILE (in the code below) with the CLIENT_ID filename #Optional # If you don't change the permission ("scope"): #the CLIENT_ID could be deleted after creating the credential (after the first run) # If you need to change the scope: # you will need the CLIENT_ID each time to create a new credential that contains the new scope. # Set a new credentials_path for the new credential (because it's another file) def get_credentials(): # If needed create folder for credential home_dir = os.path.expanduser('~') #>> C:\Users\Me credential_dir = os.path.join(home_dir, '.credentials') # >>C:\Users\Me\.credentials (it's a folder) if not os.path.exists(credential_dir): os.makedirs(credential_dir) #create folder if doesnt exist credential_path = os.path.join(credential_dir, 'cred send mail.json') #Store the credential store = oauth2client.file.Storage(credential_path) credentials = store.get() if not credentials or credentials.invalid: CLIENT_SECRET_FILE = 'client_id to send Gmail.json' APPLICATION_NAME = 'Gmail API Python Send Email' #The scope URL for read/write access to a user's calendar data SCOPES = 'https://www.googleapis.com/auth/gmail.send' # Create a flow object. (it assists with OAuth 2.0 steps to get user authorization + credentials) flow = client.flow_from_clientsecrets(CLIENT_SECRET_FILE, SCOPES) flow.user_agent = APPLICATION_NAME credentials = tools.run_flow(flow, store) return credentials ## Get creds, prepare message and send it def create_message_and_send(sender, to, subject, message_text_plain, message_text_html, attached_file): credentials = get_credentials() # Create an httplib2.Http object to handle our HTTP requests, and authorize it using credentials.authorize() http = httplib2.Http() # http is the authorized httplib2.Http() http = credentials.authorize(http) #or: http = credentials.authorize(httplib2.Http()) service = discovery.build('gmail', 'v1', http=http) ## without attachment message_without_attachment = create_message_without_attachment(sender, to, subject, message_text_html, message_text_plain) send_Message_without_attachement(service, "me", message_without_attachment, message_text_plain) ## with attachment # message_with_attachment = create_Message_with_attachment(sender, to, subject, message_text_plain, message_text_html, attached_file) # send_Message_with_attachement(service, "me", message_with_attachment, message_text_plain,attached_file) def create_message_without_attachment (sender, to, subject, message_text_html, message_text_plain): #Create message container message = MIMEMultipart('alternative') # needed for both plain & HTML (the MIME type is multipart/alternative) message['Subject'] = subject message['From'] = sender message['To'] = to #Create the body of the message (a plain-text and an HTML version) message.attach(MIMEText(message_text_plain, 'plain')) message.attach(MIMEText(message_text_html, 'html')) raw_message_no_attachment = base64.urlsafe_b64encode(message.as_bytes()) raw_message_no_attachment = raw_message_no_attachment.decode() body = {'raw': raw_message_no_attachment} return body def create_Message_with_attachment(sender, to, subject, message_text_plain, message_text_html, attached_file): """Create a message for an email. message_text: The text of the email message. attached_file: The path to the file to be attached. Returns: An object containing a base64url encoded email object. """ ##An email is composed of 3 part : #part 1: create the message container using a dictionary { to, from, subject } #part 2: attach the message_text with .attach() (could be plain and/or html) #part 3(optional): an attachment added with .attach() ## Part 1 message = MIMEMultipart() #when alternative: no attach, but only plain_text message['to'] = to message['from'] = sender message['subject'] = subject ## Part 2 (the message_text) # The order count: the first (html) will be use for email, the second will be attached (unless you comment it) message.attach(MIMEText(message_text_html, 'html')) message.attach(MIMEText(message_text_plain, 'plain')) ## Part 3 (attachement) # # to attach a text file you containing "test" you would do: # # message.attach(MIMEText("test", 'plain')) #-----About MimeTypes: # It tells gmail which application it should use to read the attachement (it acts like an extension for windows). # If you dont provide it, you just wont be able to read the attachement (eg. a text) within gmail. You'll have to download it to read it (windows will know how to read it with it's extension). #-----3.1 get MimeType of attachment #option 1: if you want to attach the same file just specify it's mime types #option 2: if you want to attach any file use mimetypes.guess_type(attached_file) my_mimetype, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(attached_file) # If the extension is not recognized it will return: (None, None) # If it's an .mp3, it will return: (audio/mp3, None) (None is for the encoding) #for unrecognized extension it set my_mimetypes to 'application/octet-stream' (so it won't return None again). if my_mimetype is None or encoding is not None: my_mimetype = 'application/octet-stream' main_type, sub_type = my_mimetype.split('/', 1)# split only at the first '/' # if my_mimetype is audio/mp3: main_type=audio sub_type=mp3 #-----3.2 creating the attachement #you don't really "attach" the file but you attach a variable that contains the "binary content" of the file you want to attach #option 1: use MIMEBase for all my_mimetype (cf below) - this is the easiest one to understand #option 2: use the specific MIME (ex for .mp3 = MIMEAudio) - it's a shorcut version of MIMEBase #this part is used to tell how the file should be read and stored (r, or rb, etc.) if main_type == 'text': print("text") temp = open(attached_file, 'r') # 'rb' will send this error: 'bytes' object has no attribute 'encode' attachement = MIMEText(temp.read(), _subtype=sub_type) temp.close() elif main_type == 'image': print("image") temp = open(attached_file, 'rb') attachement = MIMEImage(temp.read(), _subtype=sub_type) temp.close() elif main_type == 'audio': print("audio") temp = open(attached_file, 'rb') attachement = MIMEAudio(temp.read(), _subtype=sub_type) temp.close() elif main_type == 'application' and sub_type == 'pdf': temp = open(attached_file, 'rb') attachement = MIMEApplication(temp.read(), _subtype=sub_type) temp.close() else: attachement = MIMEBase(main_type, sub_type) temp = open(attached_file, 'rb') attachement.set_payload(temp.read()) temp.close() #-----3.3 encode the attachment, add a header and attach it to the message encoders.encode_base64(attachement) #https://docs.python.org/3/library/email-examples.html filename = os.path.basename(attached_file) attachement.add_header('Content-Disposition', 'attachment', filename=filename) # name preview in email message.attach(attachement) ## Part 4 encode the message (the message should be in bytes) message_as_bytes = message.as_bytes() # the message should converted from string to bytes. message_as_base64 = base64.urlsafe_b64encode(message_as_bytes) #encode in base64 (printable letters coding) raw = message_as_base64.decode() # need to JSON serializable (no idea what does it means) return {'raw': raw} def send_Message_without_attachement(service, user_id, body, message_text_plain): try: message_sent = (service.users().messages().send(userId=user_id, body=body).execute()) message_id = message_sent['id'] # print(attached_file) print (f'Message sent (without attachment) \n\n Message Id: {message_id}\n\n Message:\n\n {message_text_plain}') # return body except errors.HttpError as error: print (f'An error occurred: {error}') def send_Message_with_attachement(service, user_id, message_with_attachment, message_text_plain, attached_file): """Send an email message. Args: service: Authorized Gmail API service instance. user_id: User's email address. The special value "me" can be used to indicate the authenticated user. message: Message to be sent. Returns: Sent Message. """ try: message_sent = (service.users().messages().send(userId=user_id, body=message_with_attachment).execute()) message_id = message_sent['id'] # print(attached_file) # return message_sent except errors.HttpError as error: print (f'An error occurred: {error}') def main(): to = "youremail@gmail.com" sender = "myemail@gmail.com" subject = "subject test1" message_text_html = r'Hi
Html hello' message_text_plain = "Hi\nPlain Email" attached_file = r'C:\Users\Me\Desktop\audio.m4a' create_message_and_send(sender, to, subject, message_text_plain, message_text_html, attached_file) if __name__ == '__main__': main()

Para los usuarios de jupyter-notebook, después de seguir las instrucciones de @apadana, si recibe mensajes de error crípticos, asegúrese de copiar el código en su propio archivo de Python y ejecutarlo usando

 %run [filename].py 

(Todavía no tengo idea de cómo me di cuenta de eso)

cuando termines de hacer eso, ahora estás casi a salvo.

realice el último cambio: Error de la API de Gmail en el ejemplo de código: se requiere un objeto de tipo bytes, no ‘str’

reemplazar

 return {'raw': base64.urlsafe_b64encode(message.as_string())} 

con:

 return {'raw': base64.urlsafe_b64encode(message.as_string().encode()).decode()} 

ahora debería funcionar.


notas finales: recuerde que hay dos instancias de la cosa de encoding base64 …

utilizar

 return {'raw': base64.urlsafe_b64encode(msg.as_string().encode()).decode()} 

en el método CreateMessageHtml

y

 return {'raw': base64.urlsafe_b64encode(message.as_string().encode()).decode()} 

en el método createMessageWithAttachment

La razón por la que tienes que hacer esto es porque el mensaje tiene el nombre de variable ‘msg’ en CreateMessageHtml, pero el nombre ‘mensaje’ en createMessageWithAttachment. Por razones. Es por eso.

Gracias, @Guillame, @apadana. La respuesta de @ Guillaume me funcionó muy bien en Win / Python3.7, pero con un cambio. Para las 3 declaraciones de impresión, tuve que eliminar la “f”, como en el cambio:

 print (f'An error occurred: {error}') 

a

 print ('An error occurred: {error}') 

También mire la primera parte de la respuesta de @ apandana para obtener su archivo client_secret.json. Eso fue más claro para mí.